- Ph.D., Business Administration, University of Pittsburgh, 1977
- M.S., Accounting, The State University of New York at Albany, 1968
- B.S., Economics and Social Studies, University of Khartoum, 1965
Managerial and cost accounting, behavioral aspects of accounting, international accounting, financial accounting, accounting for not-for-profit organizations.
The change process and diffusion of innovations in the field of accounting, cross-cultural transfer
of accounting and financial practices, harmonization of accounting and auditing standards, the
impact of tax rules on global competitiveness, the role of accounting in economic development, and the use of accounting information in organizational restructuring.